Insecticide and miticide modes of action

The accompanying table lists insecticide active ingredients currently available for crop protection in New Zealand in groups according to shared risk from resistance development in target pests. The group codes are intended for use on pesticide labels to help in the prevention and management of pesticide resistance in New Zealand. Information used in constructing these tables came from publicly available information from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee and CropLife Australia.

The New Zealand Committee on Pesticide Resistance (NZCPR) is a subcommittee of the New Zealand Plant Protection Society (NZPPS). Neither NZCPR or NZPPS guarantees that the information in these tables is accurate or up-to-date, or accepts any liability for loss or damage arising from the use information contained in these tables.

Use of Group Codes on pesticide product labels

For any product that contains an active ingredient at risk from resistance development, the product label should include a statement about resistance prevention or management. This statement should begin with the mode of action or activity group(s) of the at-risk ingredient(s), as in the following example:

Resistance prevention or management
Product_name contains the GROUP 16 insecticide, buprofezin. Do not use another product containing an insecticide in the same group in conjunction with Product_name when applying the resistance prevention or management guidelines below.
[Details of the resistance guidelines for this product then follow]
Insecticide Mode of Action Groups, October 2014
Group CodeMode of Action Group and Primary Site of ActionChemical Sub-group or exemplifying Active IngredientActive Ingredient1
1 Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors
Nerve action
Note: * All members of this class may not be cross resistant. Refer to the IRAC table for further information on cross-resistance





Organophosphates* acephate
azinphos methyl
maldison (malathion)
2 GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists
Nerve action
Cyclodiene No registered actives
Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) fipronil
3 Sodium channel modulators
Nerve action
Pyrethroids, Pyrethrins











tau fluvalinate

DDT, methoxychlor No registered actives
4 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists
Nerve action
Neonicotinoids clothianidin
Nicotine No registered actives
Sulfoxaflor sulfoxaflor
5 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists
Nerve action



6 Chloride channel activators
Nerve and muscle action
Avermectins abamectin
emamectin benzoate
Milbemycins No registered actives
7 Juvenile hormone mimics
Growth regulation
Juvenile hormone analogues No registered actives
Fenoxycarb No registered actives
Pyriproxyfen pyriproxyfen
8 Miscellaneous non-specific (multi-site) inhibitors Alkyl halides methyl bromide
Chloropicrin chloropicrin
Sulfuryl fluoride No registered actives
9 Selective Homopteran feeding blockers Pymetrozine pymetrozine
Flonicamid No registered actives
10 Mite growth inhibitors
Growth regulation
Clofentezine clofentezine
Hexythiazox hexythiazox
Etoxazole etoxazole
11 Microbial disrupters of insect midgut membranes
(Includes transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins)
Bacillus thuringiensis or B. sphaericus and the insecticidal proteins they produce B.t. aizawai
B.t. kurstaki
12 Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase
Energy metabolism
Diafenthiuron No registered actives
Organotin miticides No registered actives
Propargite propargite
Tetradifon No registered actives
13 Uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of the proton gradient
Energy metabolism
Chlorfenapyr No registered actives
14 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel blockers
Nerve action
Nereistoxin analogues No registered actives
15 Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, Lepidopteran
Growth regulation
Benzoylureas diflubenzuron
16 Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, Homopteran
Growth regulation
Buprofezin buprofezin
17 Moulting disruptor, Dipteran
Growth regulation
Cyromazine cyromazine
18 Ecdysone receptor agonists
Growth regulation
Diacylhydrazines tebufenozide
19 Octopamine agonists
Nerve action
Amitraz amitraz
20 Mitchondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors (coupling site II)
Energy metabolism
Hydramethylnon No registered actives
Acequinocyl No registered actives
Fluacrypyrim No registered actives
21 Mitchondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors
Energy metabolism
METI acaricides and insecticides fenpyroximate
Rotenone rotenone
22 Voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker
Nerve action
Indoxacarb indoxacarb
Metaflumizone No registered active
23 Inhibitors of acetyl CoA carboxylase
Lipid synthesis, growth regulation
Tetronic and Tetramic acid derivatives spiromesifen
24 Mitochondrial complex IV electron transport inhibitors
Energy metabolism
Phosphine phosphine
Cyanide hydrogen cyanide
25 Mitochondrial complex II electron transport inhibitors
Energy metabolism
Cyenopyrafen No registered actives
28 Ryanodine receptor modulators
Nerve and muscle action
Diamides chlorantraniliprole
UN2 Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action Azadirachtin azadirachtin
neem seed kernel extract
Dicofol Noregistered actives
UNB3 Entomopathogenic bacteria Serratia entomophila S. entomophila strain 626Entomopathogenic fungi
Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana B. bassiana strains ATCC74040, K4B3 & K4B1
Lecanicillium lecanii L. lecanii strains K4V1 & K4V2
Verticillium lecanii V. lecanii
Entomopathogenic virus Granulosis virus Cydia pomonella, Mexican strain
Beneficial nematodes Steinernema spp.

S. carpocarsae strain 25

S. feltiae

1Active ingredients listed for all groups are those registered as insecticides or miticides for use on plants or their products at the time of compilation of this table (October 2014). Any fungicide that exhibits activity against insects or mites has been excluded as have some insecticidal products, e.g., insecticidal soaps and oils for which there is currently little concern about resistance development. If there is a question about resistance or cross-resistance from older active ingredients no longer available in New Zealand, then refer to the IRAC table ( to determine the mode of action group to which they belong.

2A compound with an unknown or controversial mode of action or an unknown mode of toxicity will be held on a group 'UN' until evidence becomes available to enable that compound to be assigned to a more appropriate mode of action group.

3 Microorganisms with entomopathogenic properties that are yet to be classified or beneficial organisms.  These are not listed by IRAC as yet.