Phenylamide management strategy
The phenylamide fungicide metalaxyl-M
is used to control downy mildew of onion
caused by Peronospora destructor
(Revised November 2004)
These guidelines are designed to manage or prevent the problem of resistance to phenylamide (previously known as acylalanine) fungicides in New Zealand. They have been developed from previously published information (Elliot et al. 1988, Moore et al. 1999) in consultation with the New Zealand agricultural chemical industry (Agcarm Inc.) and are based on recommendations from the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) in Europe.
Phenylamide fungicides are highly active against oomycete plant pathogens, e.g. Phytophthora and Pythium diseases and downy mildews (Table 1). They have been in commercial use since 1978. Phenylamides are rapidly absorbed into plant tissue and are translocated acropetally within the plant. They have a site-specific mode of action, inhibiting rRNA synthesis in the target fungi. They show no cross-resistance with other fungicide groups, but there is crossresistance among all the active ingredients within the phenylamide group. In the mid 1990s it was discovered that one of the two isomer constituents of metalaxyl was more active than the other and the active one was introduced commercially as metalaxyl-M (mefenoxam) in 1996 (Table 2).
Current status of phenylamide resistance in New Zealand
Resistance has been recorded in New Zealand to metalaxyl (including metalaxyl-M) in Phytophthora infestans in potatoes (Hartill et al. 1983) and in Peronospora viciae in peas (Falloon et al. 2000). Overseas, resistance has also been recorded in Bremia lactucae, Peronospora destructor, Peronospora parasitica, Plasmopara viticola, Phytophthora cactorum and Pseudoperonospora cubensi. It is important to heed resistance management guidelines in New Zealand to prevent resistance developing in any of these pathogens here. Adherence to resistance management guidelines in the UK and Europe for Phytophthora infestans and Plasmopara viticola appears to have limited the build-up of resistant strains, allowing continued effective use of these fungicides in potatoes and grapes. Resistant strains appear to survive less well than sensitive strains in the absence of phenylamide use. The mode of resistance to phenylamides may involve one or two major genes and potentially several minor genes. The site of mutation involved in resistance has not yet been mapped.
|Peronospora destructor||Downy mildew||Onions|
|Peronospora parasitica||Downy mildew||Brassicas|
|Peronospora sparsa||Downy mildew (dry berry)||Brambles|
|Peronospora viciae1||Downy mildew||Peas|
|Phytophthora cinnamomi||Root rot||Avocados|
|Phytophthora infestans1||Late blight||Potatoes, tomatoes|
|Phytophthora megasperma||Spear rot, crown rot||Asparagus|
|Plasmopara viticola||Downy mildew||Grapes|
|Pseudoperonospora cubensis||Downy mildew||Cucurbits|
|Pythium spp. and Phytophthora spp.||Damping off, seedling diseases, root rots||Ornamentals, seedlings, tree nurseries, lucerne|
1Pathogens with resistant strains identified in New Zealand.
|Common name||Trade name|
|metalaxyl||in Max Cl with chlorothalonil
|metalaxyl-M (mefenoxam)||Apron XL (seed treatment)
Ridomil Gold 2.5G, Ridomil Gold EC
in Ridomil Gold MZ WG with mancozeb
in Wakil XL with fludioxonil and cymoxanil (seed treatment)
General guidelines for phenylamide fungicides
- Observe manufacturers' recommendations for application rate and timing for specific products and the maximum number of applications of phenylamide products for specific crops (Table 3).
- For foliar application, phenylamide active ingredients must be mixed with an effective dose of a fungicide from a different cross-resistance group. Pre-mixed formulations are available.
- Apply phenylamides preventatively when disease level is low, but disease risk is high. Do not apply phenylamides when disease has become obvious.
- To optimise systemic activity confine phenylamide use to the period when plants are growing fastest (e.g. in the pre-flowering period for potatoes). At other times, and particularly when foliage is mature, use non-phenylamide fungicides.
- Phenylamides should not be used for foliar treatment in glasshouses because development of resistance is favoured in this situation.
|Asparagus||Phytophthora spear rot||One application of granule formulation before spear emergence in spring, or a maximum of two soil drench applications in spring, made on the same day before and after cutting.|
|Avocados||Phytophthora root rot||One spring application of granule formulation.|
|Boysenberries, brambles||Dry berry (downy mildew)||Maximum of three foliar applications per season.
Where crops are grown sequentially, no more than three phenylamide treatments within a 12 month period.
Always ensure phenylamide active ingredients are mixed with an effective dose of a fungicide from a different cross-resistance group.
|Potatoes, tomatoes||Late blight|
|Cucurbits, grapes, onions||Downy mildew|
|Seed treatment for various crops||Pea downy mildew, various damping off diseases||For seed treatment, phenylamide active ingredients should be mixed with an effective dose of a fungicide from a different cross-resistance group.
Where a phenylamide seed treatment has been used, foliar treatments with phenylamide-containing products should be avoided.
|Soil drench for various crops||Various damping off and root rot diseases||Phenylamides may be used alone as a soil drench in a single application, preferably in spring.|
Product labels for products that contain phenylamides should include an appropriate statement about resistance management.
Elliot GS, Moore MS, Wearing CH 1988. The New Zealand Committee on Pesticide Resistance 1988 summary. Proceedings of the 41st Weed and Pest Control Conference: 288-292.
Falloon RE, Follas GB, Butler RC, Goulden DS 2000. Resistance in Peronospora viciae to phenylamide fungicides: reduced efficacy of seed treatments of pea (Pisum sativum) and assessment of alternatives. Crop Protection 19: 313-325.
Hartill WFT, Tompkins GR, Kleinsman PJ 1983. Development in New Zealand of resistance to dicarboximide fungicides in Botrytis cinerea, and to acylalanines in Phytophthora infestans, and to guazatine in Penicillium italicum. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 26: 261-269.
Moore M, Hartill B, Patterson T 1996. Phenylamide resistance management strategy. In: Bourdôt GW, Suckling DM ed. Pesticide resistance: prevention and management. New Zealand Plant Protection Society, Rotorua, New Zealand. Pp. 151.